Pioneer Unmanned Spaceflight

Pioneer Venus: visit to a hot planet

Pioneer VenusJust five days after the arrival of the Pioneer Venus Orbiter, the Pioneer Venus Multiprobe arrives at Venus, having already deployed its payload of four atmospheric penetration probes on their own trajectories to plunge through the planet’s dense atmosphere at different latitudes. Only one of these probes survives impact, transmitting for an hour afterward. The Multiprobe “bus” spacecraft, having relayed the smaller probes’ readings to Earth, then follows suit, plunging into the atmosphere and disintegrating before it can hit the surface. The Pioneer Venus Orbiter remains at Venus into the 1990s.